Saturday, October 11, 2008

Liu Yongfu

Liu Yongfu was a Chinese soldier of fortune and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army. Liu won fame as a Chinese patriot fighing against the French in northern Vietnam in the 1870s and early 1880s. During the Sino-French War he established a close friendship with the Chinese statesman and general Tang Ching-sung, and in 1895 he helped Tang organise resistance to the Japanese occupation of Taiwan. He succeeded Tang as the second and last leader of the short-lived Republic of Formosa .

Early years

A Hakka Chinese, born in 1837 in Bobai, Guangxi of poor parents, Liu Yongfu joined the militia force of Wu Quanching, who held a commission from the Taipings in the 1850s. After the Taiping Rebellion was defeated the government forces gradually reasserted their control over southwest China, and in 1868 Liu Yongfu decided to take a force of 200 soldiers across the border into Tonkin, and carve out a small kingdom of his own controlling the upper course of the Red River. He had dreamed as a youth that he would one day become a famous 'General of the Black Tiger', and christened his tiny band of adventurers the Black Flag Army.

Liu's immediate objective was the border town of Lao Cai, which was then held by a band of Cantonese bandits allied with the so-called Yellow Flag Army, a force established by Huang Chongying on the model of the Black Flag Army and about three times its size. Liu Yongfu's attempt on Lao Cai brought him into conflict with the Yellow Flags. Troops of both armies moved into the town and coexisted uneasily while their leaders negotiated insincerely. Finally the Yellow Flags launched a surprise attack on Liu Yongfu and the Black Flags, first exploding a mine in an unsuccessful attempt to kill the Black Flag leader. However, despite their superior numbers, they were defeated and driven from Lao Cai. The town was to remain in the hands of the Black Flags until 1885, and became the main Black Flag stronghold.

In the next few years Liu Yongfu established a profitable protection racket on commerce on the Red River between Son Tay and Lao Cai. Traders were taxed at the rate of 10% of the value of their goods. The profits that accrued from this extortion were so great that Liu's army swelled in numbers during the 1870s, attracting to its ranks adventurers from all over the world. Although most of the soldiers were Chinese, many of the junior officers were Americans or European soldiers of fortune, some of whom had seen action in the Taiping Rebellion, and Liu used their expertise to transform the Black Flag Army into a formidable fighting force.

Liu came to an early arrangement with both the Chinese and Vietnamese governments. In 1869 and 1870 he took part in a Chinese punitive campaign against the Yellow Flags, which gave him the opportunity to settle an old score against this rival bandit army. Although the Chinese and Black Flags failed to anninhilate the Yellow Flags, they taught them a severe lesson, and Liu’s reward for his help was to be offered an honorary commission in the Chinese army. Meanwhile, knowing that the mountain regions of western Tonkin were inhabited by tribesmen who did not acknowledge the writ of the Vietnamese government, Liu wooed the Court of Hue by presenting himself as an ally against the refractory montagnards. The Vietnamese government, realising that it could not dislodge Liu from its territory, and realising too that he might be a useful ally, bowed to the inevitable. Liu was co-opted into its service, and given military rank in the Vietamese army. Provided that he continued to act in accordance with his technical status as a Vietnamese military governor, the Vietnamese authorities did not trouble the Black Flags.

Liu Yongfu and Francis Garnier

In 1873 the Vietnamese government enlisted the help of Liu's Black Flag Army to defeat the first French attempt to conquer Tonkin, led by the naval lieutenant Francis Garnier. On 21 December 1873 Liu Yongfu and around 600 Black Flags, marching beneath an enormous black banner, approached the west gate of Hanoi. A large Vietnamese army followed in their wake. Garnier began shelling the Black Flags with a field piece mounted above the gate, and when they began to fall back led a party of 18 French marine infantrymen out of the city to chase them away. The attack failed. Garnier, leading three men uphill in a bayonet attack on a party of Black Flags, was speared to death by several Black Flag soldiers after stumbling in a watercourse. The youthful ''enseigne de vaisseau'' Adrien-Paul Balny d’Avricourt led an equally small column out of the citadel to support Garnier, but was also killed at the head of his men. Three French soldiers were also killed in these sorties, and the others fled back to the citadel after their officers fell. Garnier's death ended the first French adventure in Tonkin.

Liu Yongfu and Henri Rivière

In April 1882 the French naval captain Henri Rivière captured the citadel of Hanoi, again disclosing French colonial ambitions in Tonkin and alarming the Vietnamese and Chinese governments. In April 1883, in the wake of Rivière's capture of Nam Dinh , the Chinese and Vietnamese were again able to enlist the support of Liu Yongfu and the Black Flag Army against the French in Tonkin.

On 10 May 1883 Liu Yongfu challenged the French to battle in a taunting message widely placarded on the walls of Hanoi:
The valiant warrior Liu, general and military governor of the three provinces, has decided to wage war. He makes this proclamation to the French bandits: Everyone knows you are thieves. Other nations despise you. Whenever you come to a country, you claim that you have come to preach the faith, but you really wish to stir up the inhabitants with false rumours. You claim that you have come to trade, but in fact you are plotting to take over the country.
You act like wild animals. You are as fierce as tigers and wolves. Ever since you came to Vietnam, you have seized cities and killed governors. Your crimes are as numerous as the hairs on the head. You have taken over the customs and seized the revenues. This crime deserves death. The inhabitants have been reduced to misery, and the country is nearly ruined. God and man both loathe you. Heaven and earth both reject you. I have now been ordered to wage war. My three armies are massed like clouds. My rifles and cannon are as many as the trees of the forest. We are eager to attack you in your devil’s den and to suppress all disloyal subjects. But the country’s welfare weighs heavily with me. I cannot bear to turn Hanoi into a battlefield, in case I ruin its merchants and people. So I am first making this proclamation: You French bandits, if you think you are strong enough, send your rabble of soldiers to Phu Hoai to fight in the open field with my tiger warriors, and then we will see who is the stronger.
If you are afraid to come, cut off the heads of your chief men and present them to me. Then give back the cities you have taken. I am a merciful commander, and I will let you miserable ants live. But if you delay, my army will take your city and kill you all, and not even a blade of grass will mark where you stood. You must choose between happiness and disaster. Life is but a step away from death. Mark my words well.

The French had no option but to respond to so stark a challenge. On 19 May Rivière marched out of Hanoi to attack the Black Flags. His small force advanced without proper precautions, and blundered into a well-prepared Black Flag ambush at Paper Bridge , a few miles to the west of Hanoi. In the Battle of Paper Bridge the French were enveloped on both wings, and were only with difficulty able to regroup and fall back to Hanoi. Like Francis Garnier ten years earlier, Rivière was killed in the battle. Liu had now taken the scalps of two French naval commanders in remarkably similar circumstances.

Son Tay, Bac Ninh and Hung Hoa

Liu fought two further actions against the French in the autumn of 1883, the Battle of Phu Hoai and the Battle of Palan . The Black Flag Army was mauled in both these battles, but was not seriously damaged as a fighting force. In December 1883, however, Liu Yongfu suffered a major defeat at the hands of Admiral Amédée Courbet in the Son Tay Campaign. Despite fighting with fanatical courage in the engagements at Phu Sa on 14 December and Son Tay on 16 December, the Black Flags were unable to prevent the French from storming Son Tay. Although there were also Chinese and Vietnamese contingents at Son Tay, the Black Flag Army bore the brunt of the fighting, and took very heavy casualties.

Angered that his Chinese and Vietnamese allies had done little to support the Black Flag Army at Son Tay, Liu stood on the sidelines during the Bac Ninh campaign . After the French capture of Bac Ninh, Liu retreated with the Black Flag Army to Hung Hoa. In April 1884 the French advanced on Hung Hoa with both brigades of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps. The Black Flags had thrown up an impressive series of fortifications around the town, but General Charles-Théodore Millot, the French commander-in-chief, took it without a single French casualty. While General Fran?ois de Négrier's 2nd Brigade pinned the Black Flags frontally and subjected Hung Hoa to a ferocious artillery bombardment from the Trung Xa heights, General Louis Brière de l'Isle's 1st Brigade made a flank march to the west to cut Liu's line of retreat. On the evening of 11 April, seeing Brière de l'Isle's Turcos and marine infantry emerging behind their flank at Xuan Dong, the Black Flags evacuated Hung Hoa before they were trapped inside it. They set alight the remaining buildings before they left, and on the following morning the French found the town completely abandoned.

Liu now fell back up the Red River to Thanh Quan, only a few days march from the frontier town of Lao Cai. He was now in a position to retreat into China if the French pursued him. Several hundred Black Flag soldiers, demoralised by the ease with which Courbet and Millot had defeated the Black Flag Army, surrendered to the French in the summer of 1884. One of Millot's final achievements was to advance up the Clear River and throw the Black Flag Army out of Tuyen Quang in the first week of June, again without a single French casualty. If the French had seriously pursued Liu Yongfu after the capture of Tuyen Quang, the Black Flags would probably have been driven from Tonkin there and then. But French attention was diverted by the sudden crisis with China provoked by the Bac Le ambush , and during the eventful summer of 1884 the Black Flags were left to lick their wounds.

Liu Yongfu and the Sino-French War

Liu's fortunes were transformed by the outbreak of the Sino-French War in August 1884. The Empress Dowager Cixi responded to the news of the destruction of China's Fujian Fleet at the Battle of Fuzhou by ordering her generals to invade Tonkin to throw the French out of Hanoi. Tang Ching-sung, the commander of the Yunnan Army, knew that Liu's services would be invaluable in the war with France. Although Liu had bitter memories of his previous service as an ally of China, he respected Tang , and agreed to take part with the Black Flag Army in the forthcoming campaign. Appointed a divisional general in the Yunnan Army, Liu helped the Chinese forces put pressure on Hung Hoa and the isolated French posts of Phu Doan and Tuyen Quang during the autumn of 1884. In the winter and spring of 1885 he commanded 3,000 soldiers of the Black Flag Army during the Siege of Tuyen Quang. At the Battle of Hoa Moc , the Black Flag Army inflicted heavy casualties on a French column marching to the relief of Tuyen Quang.

One of the conditions of the peace treaty between France and China that ended the Sino-French War was that Liu Yongfu and the Black Flag Army should leave Tonkin. By the end of the war Liu had only around 2,000 troops under his command and was in no position to resist pressure from Tang Ching-sung and the other commanders of the Yunnan Army to remove the Black Flag Army. Liu crossed into China with some of his most loyal followers, but the bulk of the Black Flag Army was disbanded on Tonkinese soil in the summer of 1885. Unpaid for months and still in possession of their rifles, most of the unwanted Black Flag soldiers immediately took to banditry. It took months for the French to reduce them, and the route between Hung Hoa and the border town of Lao Cai was only secured in February 1886. Meanwhile, the Qing government rewarded Liu Yongfu for his services in the Sino-French War with a minor military appointment in Guangdong province.

Liu Yongfu and the Democratic Republic of Formosa

In 1895, under the Treaty of Shimonoseki which ended the First Sino-Japanese War, Taiwan was ceded by China to Japan. The Taiwanese attempted to resist the Japanese occupation, and a short-lived Democratic Republic of Formosa was declared by the Chinese governor Tang Ching-sung on May 25 1895. Tang became president of the new republic, and Liu Yongfu was made a brigadier general and given command of resistance forces in southern Taiwan. Ten days after declaring independence Tang Ching-sung fled to Mainland China, and Liu replaced him as head of government . The Republic of Formosa lasted only 90 days, no longer than it took the Japanese to organise an expedition to occupy Taiwan. Liu's forces were brusquely swept aside in the . Within months the Imperial Japanese Army completed its occupation of Taiwan and the Japanese government formally annexed the island. With the collapse of the Formosan forces, Liu escaped back to mainland China.

Final years

Liu Yongfu outlived the Qing dynasty and survived into the second decade of the twentieth century, his reputation growing with the passing years:
He continued until the closing years of the dynasty in the employment of the Kwangtung provincial administration, and is said to have been a notable suppressor of bandits and a pacifier of clan feuds, those twin curses of the south China countryside. The advent of the Republic in 1912 found him in retirement, listening with interest to the news of public affairs as others related it to him from the papers, for he himself never learned to read. Most of the time, though, his mind dwelt in the past. He would take out Garnier’s watch and show the picture of the young wife inside the cover. He would tell of his challenge to Rivière and describe the battle at Paper Bridge. But he soon wearied of the incomprehensible foreign devils, and turned instead to what for him had been beyond comparison the most serious business of his life. The talk would then be all of the Black and Yellow Flags, and of the long years of feuds and hatreds in the steaming malarial jungle and on the silent reaches of the great river. His published memoirs, for his reminiscences were reverently taken down in writing, have as their main theme the story of this interminable vendetta between expatriate Chinese. But when he died, in January 1917, it was as the scourge of a foreign enemy, the hero whose achievements were nullified by the cowardice of his own government, that he was mourned by his countrymen, and that is the way they still remember him.

Liow Tiong Lai

Datuk Liow Tiong Lai is a Malaysian politician who is currently serving as the Health Minister in the . He is also the Chairman of the Youth wing of the Malaysian Chinese Association, a major component party of the Barisan Nasional ruling coalition.


Born in Malacca, ironically the man who is now the Health Minister once wanted to be a doctor but was thwarted by the university quota system and graduated with a Bachelor in Science from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia instead. He later furthered his studies with a Masters in Business Administration .

He is married to Datin Lee Sun Loo and has three children. He is a known vegetarian and is a strong advocate of healthy eating, especially eating organic food.

Political involvement

Liow officially joined the Malaysian Chinese Association in 1981. Soon after graduating from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in 1986, he joined MCA as a research assistant with a monthly salary of RM700. After two decades of steady rise in the party, he was appointed as MCA Youth chief in 2005.

Liow is also Bentong MP, and has retained the parliamentary seat since the . He won by a 12,549 majority in the just concluded against Parti Keadilan Rakyat's Ponusamy Govindasamy.

From 1989 to 1999, Liow served as press secretary to the then Human Resources Minister Tan Sri Lim Ah Lek and later as his political secretary. He held the post of Deputy Youth and Sports Minister since 2006 after the Cabinet underwent a revamp.

Keris controversy

In the 2006 UMNO Annual General Assembly, Hishamuddin Hussein became infamous for waving the ''keris'' . He defended his actions saying that events earlier in the year related to the status of Islam in Malaysia and the had "played on the Malay psyche. If they had not been allowed to release their feelings in a controlled channel, it could have been even worse." He defended his usage of the ''keris'', saying it was meant "to motivate the Malays" and that it "is here to stay", denying that it was a symbol of Malay supremacy .

Hishammuddin also asserted that "The keris is on the Umno flag...It is a symbol of Malay culture. You give keris as gifts to non-Malays, and non-Malays give them to me at functions."

However Liow, who is MCA Youth chief, hit back by saying that:

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Lin Fengmian

Lin Fengmian , originally Lin Fengming , was a and is considered a pioneer of modern Chinese painting for blending Chinese and Western painting styles. He was also an important innovator in the area of Chinese art education.


Born in Mei County, Guangdong, like many of his peers, Lin partipicated in the "Diligent Work and Economical Study", program, a work-study program in China during that time. Similar to his compatriot Xu Beihong, Lin spent the early years of his career in Europe, moving to France in 1920 and studying painting in France. In 1923, he later moved to Berlin, Germany. In 1925 he returned to China, where he became the principal of the Beiping State Vocational Art School . In 1928, with encouragement from Cai Yuanpei, he helped found the antecedent of the China Academy of Art, becoming its first principal.

Lin's works and life were met with great tragedy. While many of his early works were destroyed by Japanese soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War, many of his later works were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. After being heavily criticized and denounced by the Gang of Four, Lin personally destroy his own works by soaking and then flushing his works down the toilet; however, he still ended up being imprisoned for over four years.

In 1977, he was finally allowed to leave for Hong Kong, where he remained until his death. After his release, Lin slowly began to recreate many of his previously destroyed works.

Lin Dan

Lin Dan is a men's singles badminton player of Hakka ancestry, from Fujian, the People's Republic of China. Lin is currently the dominant singles player on the world stage.


Lin started playing badminton at the age of 5, and began to his professional career at the age of 17. He soon became one of the dominant players of men's single, winning nine championships in the BWF Super Series between 2002 and 2004. In a surprise loss, he was eliminated in the first round of the in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. He continued to dominate in international tournaments, and has been ranked continuously number one except for a very brief period of being ranked behind Lee Chong Wei of Malaysia in 2007.

Among the tournaments Lin Dan has won are the and the China Masters. He has helped China win three consecutive Thomas Cup championships in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Lin also won the 2007 World Badminton Championships in men's singles, defeating Sony Dwi Kuncoro of Indonesia in the final to become only the 2nd player after to win the men's singles championship back to back, after taking the gold medal in the 2006 World Badminton Championships.

He played for Chinese team in Sudirman Cup 2005 and 2007 as his team won.

Lin won his first ever on 17 August 2008 at the after defeating Lee Chong Wei of Malaysia in straight sets 21-12, 21-8.


Lin Dan became the world number one and achieved his first All England title, beating Denmark's Peter Gade. He continued to shine as he gained the Swiss Open title; the Denmark Open title, defeating his senior and former world number one Xia Xuanze; the German Open title; and the China Open title, beating his compatriot and good friend Bao Chunlai. In May, Lin Dan also became the main role to bring the Thomas Cup to China after a long domination by Indonesia.


In 2005, Lin Dan won the warm-up tournament of German Open after beating Malaysia's Muhammad Hafiz Hashim, but he lost his All England title to compatriot Chen Hong. He then defeated Chen Hong to earn the Japan Open title. In Beijing, Lin Dan and his compatriots brought back the Sudirman Cup, which China lost in 2003 when they were defeated by South Korea.

In August, Lin Dan reached his first World Championship final in Anaheim, USA, but lost to Indonesia's Taufik Hidayat. Even so, he managed to claim several more titles: the China Masters and the Hong Kong Open.


Lin Dan started his brilliant year by regaining his All England title, overcoming Lee Hyun-il of South Korea. He carried on his reign as the world number one when he swept the Chinese Taipei Open, Macau Open, Hong Kong Open, World Championships, and Japan Open titles.

He lost his world number one for a while to Lee Chong Wei but reclaimed it when he emerged as the 2006 world champion, overpowering his comrade Bao Chunlai 18-21, 21-17, 21-12. Bao was the player who defeated Lee in the quarter-final.

Earlier in May, Lin Dan and his teammates extended China's supremacy in the Thomas and Uber Cup event in Sendai and Tokyo, Japan. Lin won over Peter Gade in straight sets 21-17, 21-19 as China demolished Denmark 3-0.


Lin Dan made a poor start in the Malaysia Open, losing to South Korea's Park Sung-hwan in the round of 16. But this did not last long, as a week later he came to be the champion of Korea Open after defeating his fellow national player Chen Jin. He attained the German Open title and then All England title again, crushing Chen Yu of China.

In June, Lin Dan participated for China in the Sudirman Cup, Glasgow, Scotland, and the Chinese team brought home the cup after beating Indonesia 3-0. Lin himself did not play because the men's singles match was scheduled for the last match.

Afterwards, Lin Dan ousted Wong Choong Hann of Malaysia and became the champion of the 2007 China Masters. He won the Denmark Open and Hong Kong Open as well.

In August, Lin Dan extended his reign as the world champion as he beat Indonesia's Sony Dwi Kuncoro in the final in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


As every athlete looked forward to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Lin Dan, who was certainly qualified to play, did not begin well as he failed in the Malaysian Open and Korean Open. He lost his All England title to Chen Jin, but then won the Swiss Open.

In the 2008 Thomas Cup that was held in Jakarta again, Lin Dan won almost every match he played, except in the semi-final where he lost to Malaysia's Lee Chong Wei. However, he gave one point to China as he returned from his first-set loss and overcame Park Sung-hwan of South Korea 10-21, 21-18, and 21-8. China won over South Korea 3-1 and, with Lin's participation, brought back the cup for the third consecutive time.

Lin Dan did not play in Singapore and Indonesia, two tournaments that was ranked Super Series, but he played in the Thailand Open Grand Prix Gold and conquered local favorite, Boonsak Ponsana, to take the title.

In the Olympic Games, Lin Dan, who was undoubtedly the local hero, began his gold medal hunt by subduing Hong Kong's Ng Wei 21-16, 21-13 in the round of 32. Next he saw off Park Sung-hwan 21-11, 21-8, and shattered Peter Gade's dream of ever winning a medal in the Beijing Games in the last eight. He faced Chen Jin in the semis and sent the younger player to fight Lee Hyun-il in the bronze medal match.

Lee Chong Wei was his last opponent. It was supposedly to be a tough match, but Lin Dan grabbed the gold as he overwhelmed the Malaysian in an easy two-setter 21-12, 21-8. Lin became the first men's singles ever to win the All England title, the world championship title, and the Olympic gold medal.

Lin Dan plays some exhibition in Hong Kong and takes a holiday after the Olympics, and he will play again after October 8.

Personal Life

Lin is one of the more popular and controversial badminton players active today, due to his flamboyant personality. He is known as a temperamental player, occasionally disrupting matches to protest line calls. He has a romantic relationship with fellow Chinese badminton player Xie Xingfang. Lin was once an officer in the People's Liberation Army. He has been nicknamed "Super Dan" by his adoring mainland fans.

Style and attributes

Lin Dan's playing style compromises quick maneuverability around the court and the ability to maintain long, aggressive rallies. His well built physique, powerful straight/cross court jump smashes, and fast penetrating footwork makes him one of the toughest elite badminton player's known. In terms of weaknesses he will sometimes make too many unforced errors at the net and lose mental focus at crucial moment's of a game. Sometimes, he tends to be very stiff and nervous when he plays in high-pressured atmosphere, this is where he tends to make mistakes.


Liao Zhongkai

Liao Zhongkai , Kuomintang leader and financier. Liao Zhongkai was the principal architect of the first Kuomintang-Chinese Communist Party United Front in the 1920s.

Liao Zhongkai was born in 1877, in San Francisco and received his early education in the United States. He was one of twenty-four children. His father, Liao Zhubin, who had five wives, was sent to San Francisco by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank.

Returning to Hong Kong in 1893, at the age of sixteen he studied at Queen's College from 1896. He married He Xiangning in 1897. He then went to Japan in January 1903 to study political science at Waseda University. In 1907 he went to Tokyo University to study political and economic science.

He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 upon its founding and became the director of the financial bureau of Guangdong after the founding of the Republic of China.
In the early struggles of the party, Liao Zhongkai was arrested by Guangdong strongman, Chen Jiongming, in June 1922. After Chen's defeat Liao became Civil governor of Guangdong from May 1923 to February 1924, and then again from June to September 1924. During the first Kuomintang - Chinese Communist Party cooperation period, he was appointed to the Kuomintang Executive Committee.

When the KMT was reformed in 1924, he was named the head of the Department of Workers, and then Department of Peasants. Later he became Minister of Finance of the southern government, seated in Guangdong. When Sun Yat-sen died in Beijing in March, 1925, and Liao was one of the three most powerful figures in the Kuomintang Executive Committee, the other two were Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin.

Liao continued his belief in Sun's policy after he died and one of the key policies was to maintain close relations with the Soviet Union as well as the Chinese Communist Party, which was strongly opposed by the KMT right wing. Liao was assassinated before a Kuomintang Executive Committee meeting on August 30, 1925 in Guangzhou, Guangdong, and Hu Hanmin was suspected and arrested. This left only Wang Jingwei and the rising Chiang Kai-shek as rivals for control of the Kuomintang.

He and He Xiangning had a daughter, Liao Mengxing, and a son, Liao Chengzhi, and the latter had four sons, Liao Hui being the eldest.

External links
* biography with photo

Liao Chengzhi

Liao Chengzhi was a Chinese politician. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1928, and rose to the position of director of the Xinhua News Agency; after 1949, he worked in various positions related to foreign affairs, most prominently president of the Beijing Foreign Languages Institute, president of the Sino-Japanese Friendship Society, and Minister of the Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs.

Early life

Liao was born in the neighbourhood of Tokyo in 1908 to father
Liao Zhongkai and mother He Xiangning. His father, a native of in Huizhou, Guangdong, had wanted to study abroad ever since he was a student at Hong Kong's ; he left his wife behind in Hong Kong to pursue his studies in Tokyo in January 1903, but she joined him there just three months later. She pursued education there as well, taking time off after young Liao was born, but returning to school just six months later. Liao was overweight as a child; even his own parents referred to him as "fatty" . His parents became members of the Kuomintang very early on; Sun Yat-sen was a frequent visitor to their household, sparking the young Liao's interest in politics. His family moved frequently; the young Liao attended school in Tokyo, Shanghai, and Guangzhou.

Liao returned to his parents' home of Guangdong in 1923, where he entered the middle school attached to Lingnan University.

Fighting the Nationalists and Japan

In August 1933, Liao bid farewell to his mother and, under the orders of the Party, proceeded to the Sichuan-Shaanxi area carrying Kuomintang codes which would allow the Communists to decrypt their telegraph messages. After his arrival there, he became Secretary of the Politburo of the Chinese Red Army's Fourth Front Army. However, he offended his superior Zhang Guotao by pointing out some of his ideological errors; Zhang Guotao criticised Liao as a "member of a Kuomintang family" and had him arrested. He spent two more years in a CPC prison, and thus ended the Long March as a criminal, but was restored to good standing in the Party in late 1936 while in northern Shaanxi by Mao Zedong and his old friend Zhou Enlai. He then began his work with the Red China News Agency, 's forerunner, where he put his international experience to good use, translating news into , , , and . His mother arranged for Jing Puchun to be sent there as well, as a surprise for her son; the two had a joyous reunion at the docks as Liao stepped off his ship, and married soon after, on 11 January 1938. Liao left Hong Kong in January 1941, but after the Imperial Japanese Army and the city, he was chosen for his fluency in Japanese along with Lian Guan to sneak back in and establish contact with fellow revolutionaries who had been trapped there; by May, he had helped over 500 people escape from Hong Kong, including his mother, Soong Ching-ling, Mao Dun, Xia Yan, Liang Shuming, Cai Chusheng, Liu Yazi , Hu Feng , Hu Sheng , and Zou Taofen . In March 1980, with his health worsening, Liao flew to the United States to undergo coronary artery bypass surgery at the Stanford University's . He remained overweight even in his twilight years; after his surgery, his wife tried to manage his diet more closely, but he continued to eat fatty foods and smoke the occasional cigarette.

Li Xiucheng

Li Xiucheng , eminent military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, and known during his military tenure as the King of Zhong and "Loyal Prince Lee" by Western Sources. He served loyally under Hong Xiuquan's Taiping Administration, led Taiping forces to many military victories. He was executed by Zeng Guofan after interrogation in 1864,Li is the most important general and soul person for post-Taiping Rebellion.


Second rout the Army Group Jiangnan

The Army Group Jiangnan were Qing military encircle the Nanjing in strategy, It has two times, the second encircle that Qing military putin 200,000 soldiers from March 1858, but it had been routed by Li Xiucheng in May 1860 and occupied rich Jiangsu Province all except shanghai.

2 times attack Shanghai

Escaped from Suzhou:Sadness

Li Xiucheng' Mansion built in Suzhou where was the only one of Taiping Rebellion that exists today,In July 1863, Li ordered his daughter' husband Tan SauGuan take over control Suzhou. but Li Hongzhang leaded the Why Army combined by the "Ever Victorious Army," which, having been raised by an American named Frederick Townsend Ward, was placed under the command of Charles George Gordon. With this support Li Hongzhang gained numerous victories leading to the surrender of Suzhou.

Determining battle:lead defend capital Nanjing

Chiang Donkey

The Chiang Donkey was Li Xiucheng stable manager. Before the Nanjing fall down 3 months in 1864, Li Xiucheng took his wealth included much treasure to Chiang Donkey, and wanna Chiang took it leave out Nanjing quickly and watting Li Xiucheng at somewhere. Chiang promised and took treasure by 20 horses and cows car, but Li executed at last. Chiang Donkey became the first rich in Nanjing after civil war.

It could explained Chiang Kai-shek and Li Zongren some secret relation by Buddhism passed 60 years.


In ''Zhong Prince Li Xiucheng Describes Himself'' , the autobiographical account of a prince of the Heavenly Kingdom written shortly before his .


*Li Ronfar Battle of Shanghai

?Li Xiucheng had three daughters, their husbands were Taiping‘s generals:
*Tan SauGuan
*Chen Binwen


Tiān Guó Zwi

Li photo look so sad and blue hero